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Introduction:
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product. Dependability, or reliability, describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time. Reliability is closely related to availability, which is typically described as the ability of a component or system to function at a specified moment or interval of time.

Reliability can be defined as the ability of a device to conform to its electrical and visual/mechanical specifications over a specified period of time under specified conditions at a specified confidence level.  Reliability engineering employs a wide variety of reliability tests to achieve continuous reliability improvement throughout the entire life cycle of the semiconductor device - from design, to manufacturing, to its usage, and until after its failure.
The objectives of reliability engineering, in decreasing order of priority, are:
  • To apply engineering knowledge and specialist techniques to prevent or to reduce the likelihood or frequency of failures.
  • To identify and correct the causes of failures that does occur despite the efforts to prevent them.
  • To determine ways of coping with failures that does occur, if their causes have not been corrected.
  • To apply methods for estimating the likely reliability of new designs, and for analysing reliability data.

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Temperature Cycle Test (TCT):
Temperature cycling (or temperature cycle) is the process of cycling through two temperature extremes, typically at relatively high rates of change. It is an environmental stress test used in evaluating product reliability as well as in manufacturing to catch early-term, latent defects by inducing failure through thermal fatigue.
Industrial standards that administrate the Temperature Cycle Testing are:
  • IEC 60068-2-14Nb:2009 Temperature Cycling
  • JESD22-A104E:2014
  • MIL-STD-883G

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Constant Temperature Test:
High Temperature Test:
The test is applicable for evaluation, screening, monitoring, and/or qualification of all solid state devices.  The high temperature storage test is typically used to determine the effects of time and temperature, under storage conditions, for thermally activated failure mechanisms and time-to failure distributions of solid state electronic devices, including non-volatile memory devices (data retention failure mechanisms). Thermally activated failure mechanisms are modelled using the Arrhenius Equation for acceleration. During the test, accelerated stress temperatures are used without electrical conditions applied.

Low Temperature Test:
The test is applicable for evaluation, screening, monitoring, and/or qualification of all solid state devices Low Temperature storage test is typically used to determine the effect of time and temperature, under storage conditions, for thermally activated failure mechanisms of solid state electronic devices, including non-volatile memory devices (data retention failure mechanisms). During the test reduced temperatures (test conditions) are used without electrical stress applied.
Industrial standards that administrate the Constant Temperature Test are:
  • IEC 60068-2-2:2007 Tests B:Dry Heat
  • JESD22-A103E:2015 High Temperature Storage
  • IEC 60068-2-1:2007 Test A:Cold
  • JESD22-A119A:2015 Low Temperature
  • MIL-STD-883G

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Temperature & Humidity Test:
Temperature & Humidity Test is a method for determining the ability of components or equipment to withstand transportation, storage and use under conditions of high humidity.

The object of this standard is to investigate the effect of high humidity at constant temperature without condensation on a specimen over a prescribed period. It is applicable to small equipment or components as well as large equipment, and can be applied to both heat-dissipating and non-heat-dissipating specimens.

Temperature & humidity testing determines how components, subsystems and complete systems behave in severe environments that involve elevated temperatures and high or fluctuating relative humidity. The tests can be static with constant temperature and humidity, they can involve the cycling of both, and they can be temperature-humidity bias tests or some combination of all of these.

Industrial standards that administrate the Temperature & Humidity Test are:
  • IEC 60068-2-78:2012 Test Cab: Damp Heat, Steady State
  • IEC60068-2-30 Ed3:2005
  • JESD22-A101D:2015
  • MIL-STD-883G

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Degrees of Protection (IP Code):
The IP Test classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against intrusion (body parts such as hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. Different products require different levels of testing and different types of testing. Generally, ingress protection is divided into testing for ingress from foreign/solid objects (Dust) or liquids (Water). Ingress protection testing helps determine whether a particular product is going to function appropriately when placed in the field.

Ingress Protection Ratings:
Ingress protection ratings are standardized ratings that are used to describe the type and degree of ingress protection that a particular item possesses.
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IP First number - Protection against foreign/solid objects (dust):
LevelDescription
IP1X Protected against solid objects over 50 mm, e.g. accidental touch by persons hands
IP2X Protected against solid objects over 12 mm, e.g. persons fingers
IP3X Protected against solid objects over 2.5 mm (tools and wires)
IP4X Protected against solid objects over 1 mm (tools, wires, and small wires)
IP5X Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit)
IP6X Totally protected against dust

IP Second number - Protection against liquid (water):
LevelDescription
IPX4 Protection against water sprayed from all directions - limited ingress permitted
IPX5 Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions - limited ingress
IPX6 Protected against temporary flooding of water, e.g. for use on ship decks - limited ingress permitted
IPX7 Protected against the effect of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m
IPX8 Protects against long periods of immersion under pressure


Industrial standards that administrate the IP Test are:
  • IEC 60529:2013 Ingress Protection

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Salt Spray Test:
The salt spray test is a standardized and popular corrosion test method, used to check corrosion resistance of materials and surface coatings. Salt spray testing is an accelerated corrosion test that produces a corrosive attack to coated samples in order to evaluate (mostly comparatively) the suitability of the coating for use as a protective finish. The appearance of corrosion products (rust or other oxides) is evaluated after a pre-determined period of time. Test duration depends on the corrosion resistance of the coating; generally, the more corrosion resistant the coating is, the longer the period of testing before the appearance of corrosion/ rust. The salt spray test is one of the most widespread and long established corrosion tests.

Industrial standards that administrate the Salt Spray Test are:
  • IEC 68-2-52:1996 Salt Mist, cyclic (sodium chloride solution)
  • IEC 60068-2-11:Test Ka (Edition 3.0 1981)
  • ISO 9227:2006
  • MIL-STD-883G

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Vibration Test (XYZ-Axis):
Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a structure, usually with some type of shaker. Alternately, a DUT (device under test) is attached to the "table" of a shaker. Vibration testing is performed to examine the response of a device under test (DUT) to a defined vibration environment. The most common types of vibration testing services conducted by vibration test labs are Sinusoidal and Random. Sine (one-frequency-at-a-time) tests are performed to survey the structural response of the device under test (DUT). A random (all frequencies at once) test is generally considered to more closely replicate a real world environment, such as road inputs to a moving automobile.

Example of Sine Vibration:Example of Sine Vibration:
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Example of Random Vibration:

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Example of Mechanical Shock:

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Industrial standards that administrate the Vibration Test are:
  • BS EN 60068-2-6:2008 Test FC: Vibration Sinusoidal
  • JESD22-B103B:2006
  • IEC 60068-2-47:2005
  • IEC 60068-2-64:2008

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Other Test:
  • Thermal Shock Test
  • Altitude Test
  • Solderability Test
  • Adhesion Test
  • Colour Assessment Test
  • Weatherability Test
  • ESD Analysis (RTG & Walking Test)

Random Images of Some Equipment:-
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Anttela Sdn Bhd (707011-K)
No. 104, Jalan Waja Indah 3,
Taman Waja Indah,
Kawasan Perindustrian Waja,
09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia.
+604-408 0550
asb@anttela.com (Customer Service)

+6016-449 6561 (Dr. Sathiskumari)
+6016-449 6642 (Mr. Gobalan)
+6016-449 6560 (Mr. Danial)
sathis@anttela.com
      (Failure Analysis,ESD, Reliability &
       Business Development)
gobalan@anttela.com (Reliability/EMC/EMI)
danial@anttela.com (Failure Analysis)

Located at the centre of the Northern Region in Kulim, Kedah Darul Aman, Anttela Laboratory is very close to the North-South and East-West Highways. It is 27 km from the North Butterworth Container Terminal and 45 km from Bayan Lepas International Airport. It is directly linked to the East-West Highway via a four-lane primary access road.